Dogs Chasing Squirrels

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Category Archives: Software Development

Adaptive firewalls will be the death of me


We had an issue today where requests to our Azure App Service were extraordinarily slow. According to our app service metrics, requests were being handled in around 15 milliseconds, however clients were seeing requests take half a minute. Clearly this was something related to the network. Our service is behind an Azure Application Gateway, though nothing in Azure that I could find would show me the end-to-end request time and where the bottleneck was. After doing some testing on my own, I found that my initial requests were instant but then subsequently slowed. This was the tip-off. When you see a request slow over time, it’s an indication that some adaptive firewall is sitting in the middle and, after some initial traffic, has seen something it doesn’t like and has decided to start interfering with the traffic. Hunting around, I found the firewall rule enabling the firewall’s inspection of the body of requests. After disabling that, it’s been smooth sailing.

When I was initially trying to find the source of the problem, I went through Microsoft and Azure’s own troubleshooting guide where it ran checks on my software and made suggestions. Its “documents from the web that might help you” were no help at all.

Shockingly, “Hollywood: Where are they now?” didn’t help me fix my Azure App Service problems.

Rider – The specified task executable “fsc.exe” could not be run.


One of my F# projects started throwing this error on build after I uninstalled and reinstalled some other, unrelated .net core versions.

    C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\5.0.103\FSharp\Microsoft.FSharp.Targets(281,9): error MSB6003: The specified task executable "fsc.exe" could not be run. System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (193): The specified executable is not a valid application for this OS platform. [C:\FSharp.fsproj]
    C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\5.0.103\FSharp\Microsoft.FSharp.Targets(281,9): error MSB6003:    at System.Diagnostics.Process.StartWithCreateProcess(ProcessStartInfo startInfo) [C:\FSharp.fsproj]
    C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\5.0.103\FSharp\Microsoft.FSharp.Targets(281,9): error MSB6003:    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Start() [C:\FSharp.fsproj]
    C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\5.0.103\FSharp\Microsoft.FSharp.Targets(281,9): error MSB6003:    at Microsoft.Build.Utilities.ToolTask.ExecuteTool(String pathToTool, String responseFileCommands, String commandLineCommands) [C:\FSharp.fsproj]
    C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\5.0.103\FSharp\Microsoft.FSharp.Targets(281,9): error MSB6003:    at Microsoft.Build.Utilities.ToolTask.Execute() [C:\FSharp.fsproj]

Googling the error didn’t turn up anything useful. I started a new F# project which compiled without errors, which led me to the solution, which was to delete my failing projects .idea folder. After reopening Rider, problem solved.

Streaming a response in .NET Core WebApi


We, as web developers, should try to avoid loading files into memory before returning them via our APIs. Servers are a shared resource and so we’d like to use as little memory as we can. We do this by writing large responses out as a stream.

In the ASP.NET MVC days, I would use PushStreamContent to stream data out in a Web API. That doesn’t seem to exist in .NET core and, even if it did, we don’t need it anyway. There’s an easy way to get direct access to the output stream and that’s just with the controller’s this.Response.Body, which is a Stream.

In this sample, I just grab a file out of my downloads folder and stream it back out:

[Route( "streaming" )]
public async Task GetStreaming() {
    const string filePath = @"C:\Users\mike\Downloads\dotnet-sdk-3.1.201-win-x64.exe";
    this.Response.StatusCode = 200;
    this.Response.Headers.Add( HeaderNames.ContentDisposition, $"attachment; filename=\"{Path.GetFileName( filePath )}\"" );
    this.Response.Headers.Add( HeaderNames.ContentType, "application/octet-stream"  );
    var inputStream = new FileStream( filePath, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read );
    var outputStream = this.Response.Body;
    const int bufferSize = 1 << 10;
    var buffer = new byte[bufferSize];
    while ( true ) {
        var bytesRead = await inputStream.ReadAsync( buffer, 0, bufferSize );
        if ( bytesRead == 0 ) break;
        await outputStream.WriteAsync( buffer, 0, bytesRead );
    await outputStream.FlushAsync();

This does the same thing in F#:

member __.GetStreaming() = async {
    let filePath = @"C:\Users\mike\Downloads\dotnet-sdk-3.1.201-win-x64.exe"
    __.Response.StatusCode <- 200
    __.Response.Headers.Add( HeaderNames.ContentDisposition, StringValues( sprintf "attachment; filename=\"%s\"" ( System.IO.Path.GetFileName( filePath ) ) ) )
    __.Response.Headers.Add( HeaderNames.ContentType, StringValues( "application/octet-stream" ) )
    let inputStream = new FileStream( filePath, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read )
    let outputStream = __.Response.Body
    let bufferSize = 1 <<< 10
    let buffer = Array.zeroCreate<byte> bufferSize
    let mutable loop = true
    while loop do
        let! bytesRead = inputStream.ReadAsync( buffer, 0, bufferSize ) |> Async.AwaitTask
        match bytesRead with
        | 0 -> loop <- false
        | _ -> do! outputStream.WriteAsync( buffer, 0, bytesRead ) |> Async.AwaitTask
    do! outputStream.FlushAsync() |> Async.AwaitTask
    return EmptyResult()

A couple of important notes:
1. By default, you have to write to the stream using the Async methods. If you try to write with non-Async methods, you’ll get the error “Synchronous operations are disallowed. Call WriteAsync or set AllowSynchronousIO to true instead.” and, as the error says, you’ll have to enable the AllowSynchronousIO setting.
2. On C# you can have your streaming controller method return nothing at all. If you try the same on F#, you’ll get the error, midway through the response, “StatusCode cannot be set because the response has already started”. The solution to this is to have the method return an EmptyResult().

Railway-Oriented Programming in F# and WebAPI


If you’re interested in learning about using railway-oriented programming in F#, you should be reading Railway oriented programming at and The Marvels of Monads at Stylish F# by Kit Eason has also been a help.

Functional programming is about functional composition and pipelineing functions from one to the next to get a result. Railway-oriented programming is about changing that pipeline to a track where if an operation succeeds, it goes forwards and if it fails, it cuts over to a failure track. F# already has built-in the Result object, a discriminated union giving success (Ok) or failure (Error) and the monadic functions, bind, map, and mapError.

I was interested in how these could be applied to a WebAPI endpoint. Let’s say we’re passing these results along a pipeline. What’s failure? In the end, it will be an IActionResult of some kind, probably a StatusCodeResult. 404, 401, 500, whatever. In the end, that’s an IActionResult, too, though with a status code of 200.

There’s an F#, functional web project that already does something like this,, though it doesn’t look to be maintained anymore. Even so, they have some good, async implementations of the various railway/monadic functions like bind, compose, etc. I’ve tried to adapt them in to my own AsyncResult module.


The result object is unchanged:

type Result<'TSuccess,'TFailure> =
    | Ok of 'TSuccess
    | Error of 'TFailure


First, bind, which takes some Result input and a function and, if the input is Ok, calls the function with the contents, and, if the input is Error, short-cuts and returns the error.
An async bind looks like this:

let bind f x = async {
    let! x' = x
    match x' with
    | Error e -> return Error e
    | Ok x'' -> return! f x''


Next we have map. Say we have a function that takes some object and manipulates it returning another object. Map lets us insert that into our railway, with the function operating on the contents of the Ok result.
An async map looks like this:

let map f x = async {
    let! x' = x
    match x' with
    | Error e -> return Error e
    | Ok x'' ->
        let! r = f x''
        return Ok( r )


MapError is like map but instead we expect the function to operate on the Error result.
This is my async mapError:

let mapError f x = async {
    let! x' = x
    match x' with
    | Error e ->
        let! r = f e
        return Error( r )
    | Ok ok ->
        return Ok ok


Next we have compose, which lets us pipe two bound functions together. If the first function returns an Ok(x) as output, the second function takes the x as input and returns some Result. If the first function returns an Error, the second is never called.
This is the async compose:

let compose f1 f2 =
    fun x -> bind f2 (f1 x)

Custom Operators

We can create a few custom operators for our functions:

// bind operator
let (>>=) a b =
    bind b a

// compose operator
let (>=>) a b =
    compose a b

An Example WebAPI Controller

Let’s imagine a WebAPI controller endpoint that implements GET /thing/{id} where we return some Thing with the given ID. Normally we would:
* Check that the user has permission to get the thing.
* Get the thing from the database.
* Format it into JSON.
* Return it.
If the user doesn’t have permissions, we should get a 401 Unauthorized. If the Thing with the given ID isn’t found, we should get a 404 Not Found.

The functions making up our railway

Usually we want a connection to the database but I’m just going to fake it for this example:

let openConnection(): Async<IDbConnection> =
    async {
        return null

We might also have a function that, given the identity in the HttpContext and a database connection could fetch the user’s roles. Again we’ll fake it. For testing purposes, we’ll say the user is an admin unless the thing ID ends in 99

let getRole ( connection : IDbConnection ) ( context : HttpContext ) =
    async {
        if context.Request.Path.Value.EndsWith("99") then return Ok "user"
        else return Ok "admin"

Now we come to our first railway component. We want to check the user has the given role. If he does, we return Ok, if not an Error with the 401 Unauthorized code (not yet a StatusCodeResult)

let ensureUserHasRole requiredRole userRole =
    async {
        if userRole = requiredRole then return Ok()
        else return Error( HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized )

Next we have a railway component that fetches the thing by ID. For testing purposes, we’ll say that if the ID is 0 we’ll return an Option.None and otherwise return an Option.Some. Although I haven’t added it here, I could imagine adding a try/catch that returns an Error 500 Internal Server Error when an exception is caught.

let fetchThingById (connection: IDbConnection) (thingId: int) () =
    async {
        match thingId with
        | 0 ->
            // Pretend we couldn't find it.
            return Ok( None )
        | _ ->
            // Pretend we got this from the DB
            return Ok( Some ( { Id = thingId; Name = "test" } ) )

Our next railway component checks that a given object is found. If it’s Some, it returns Ok with the result. If it’s None, we get an Error, 404 Not Found.

let ensureFound ( value : 'a option ) = async {
    match value with
    | Some value' -> return Ok( value' )
    | None -> return Error( HttpStatusCode.NotFound )

Next we’ll create a function that just converts a value to a JSON result (maybe pretending there might be more complicated formatting going on here):

let toJsonResult ( value : 'a ) =
    async {
        return ( JsonResult( value ):> IActionResult )

Finally, we’ll add a function to convert that HttpStatusCode to a StatusCodeResult (also overkill – we could probably inline it):

let statusCodeToErrorResult ( code : HttpStatusCode ) = async {
    return ( StatusCodeResult( (int)code ) :> IActionResult )

When we end up, we’re going to have an Ok result of type IActionResult and an Error, also of type IActionResult. I want to coalesce the two into whatever the result is, regardless of whether it’s Ok or Error:

// If Error and OK are of the same type, returns the enclosed value.
let coalesce r = async {
    let! r' = r
    match r' with
    | Error e -> return e
    | Ok ok -> return ok

Putting it together

Here’s our railway in action:

// GET /thing/{thingId}
let getThing (thingId: int) (context: HttpContext): Async<IActionResult> =
    async {
        // Create a DB connection
        let! connection = openConnection()
        // Get the result
        let! result =
            // Starting with the context...
            context |> (
                // Get the user's role
                ( getRole connection )
                // Ensure the user is an admin.  
                >=> ( ensureUserHasRole "admin" )
                // Fetch the thing by ID
                >=> ( fetchThingById connection thingId ) 
                // Ensure if was found
                >=> ensureFound
                // Convert it to JSON
                >> ( map toJsonResult )
                // Map the error HttpStatusCode to an error StatusCodeResult
                >> ( mapError statusCodeToErrorResult )
                // Coalese the OK and Error into one IAction result
                >> coalesce
        // Return the result
        return result

To summarize, we
* Get the user’s role, resulting in an Ok with the role (and no Error, though I could imagine catching an exception and returning a 500).
* See if the user has the role we need resulting in an Ok with no content or an Error(401).
* Fetch a Thing from the database, resulting in an Object.Some or Object.None.
* Check that it’s not None, returning an Error(404) if it is or an Ok(Thing).
* Mapping the Ok(Thing) into a Thing and turning the Thing into a JsonResult.
* or mapping the Error(HttpStatusCode) into a HttpStatusCode and turning the Error(HttpStatusCode) into a StatusCodeResult.
* Taking whichever result we ended up with, the JsonResult or StatusCodeResult and returning it.

If we run the website and call https://localhost:5001/thing/1 we get the JSON for our Thing.


If we call /thing/0 we get 404 Not Found. If we call thing/99 we get 401 Unauthorized.

There’s room here for some other methods. I could imagine wanting to wrap a call in a try/catch and return a 500 Server Error if it fails, for example.

The best part is that it’s a nice, readable, railway of functions. And our custom operators make it look good.

The code for this post can be found on GitHub.

Signature validation failed. Unable to match ‘kid’


I came across this error trying to validate tokens between a React app and an Okta developer page and Stack Overflow was giving me nothing.

On the client side, I was using the oidc-client.js, like so:

  const oidcConfiguration: any = {
    authority: env.__AUTH_AUTHORITY__,
    redirect_uri: env.__AUTH_REDIRECT_URI__,
    post_logout_redirect_uri: env.__AUTH_POST_LOGOUT_REDIRECT_URI__,
    silent_redirect_uri: env.__AUTH_SILENT_RENEW_URI__,
    client_id: env.__AUTH_CLIENT_ID__,
    response_type: 'id_token token',
    scope: 'openid profile email',

The authority was my dev account, something like I got this working and managed to get myself an access token.

On the .net core side, I was using basic JWT validation. I had been using Okta’s example but they amount to the same thing.

// Add JWT Bearer authentication
services.AddAuthentication( sharedOptions => {
      sharedOptions.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
      sharedOptions.DefaultChallengeScheme    = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
   } )
   .AddJwtBearer( options => {
      options.Authority = this._configuration["Auth:Authority"];
      options.Audience  = this._configuration["Auth:Audience"];
   } );

Using the same authority as getting the token, I got an error message that told me I needed to set up an authorization server. I set one up that was, by default, something like When I tried to authenticate my token against this server, I got the error “Signature validation failed. Unable to match ‘kid’”.

The solution turned out to be pretty simple: The client has to be changed to also use to get the token instead of just

Signing MSI Installers with a Code Signing Certificate


Signing installer MSIs with a code signing certificate prevents Windows from showing a big red “This application is untrusted!” warning when an installer is launched.

I recently had to set up code signing with a certificate we got from GoDaddy and it’s a little convoluted so I’ll document it here.

Creating and using a code signing certificate involves three passwords which we’ll call

Getting a Code Signing Certificate

We get our code signing certificates from GoDaddy.

Generating a Certificate Request

For this we’ll need our REQUEST_PASSWORD.
Following the instructions here we’ll end up with the files
* request.csr
* request.pfx

The pfx file has our private key embedded in it. These files need to be submitted to GoDaddy.

When the request is processed, GoDaddy will send us certificate files. These are randomly named, something like:

Extract the Private Key from the Certificate Request

We need the private key in the certificate request as a .key file. To do this we need to install OpenSSL. It can be installed as part of cygwin.

Generate the key via (where $ is the cygwin bash prompt):

$ openssl pkcs12 -in request.pfx -nocerts -out request.key.pem -nodes
Enter Import Password: REQUEST_PASSWORD 

The key will be in request.key.pem

Create a PVK File

Next we need to create a PVK file. For this we need pvk.exe.


PS C:\tmp\ssl> .\pvk.exe -in .\request.key.pem -topvk -strong -out cert.key.pvk
Enter Password: EXPORT_PASSWORD 
Verifying - Enter Password: EXPORT_PASSWORD 

This generates cert.key.pvk

Combined the PVK and SPC into a PFX

Installers are signed with a PFX file which is a combination of the key and certificate. For this we need pvk2pfx.exe.


pvk2pfx.exe -pvk cert.key.pvk -pi EXPORT_PASSWORD -spc SOMERANDOM-SHA2.spc -pfx codesign.pfx -po SIGNING_PASSWORD -f

This generates codesign.pfx. This, along with SIGNING_PASSWORD is what we need to sign the MSI. When the code signing certificate expires we’ll need to repeat the steps above.

Signing the Installer

Once we have the PFX and the signing password, we can sign the installer. For this we need signtool.exe.

The command to sign the installer is:

.\signtool.exe sign /f .\codesign.pfx /p SIGNING_PASSWORD /d "(some description)" /tr /v "PATH_TO_MSI"

There are other timeservers you can use.

Adding roles to IdentityServer4 OpenID Results


The IdentityServer4 Quickstart projects make it look so easy to add new custom properties to identity users. In their sample, they just add a “website” claim to a user and it shows up in the client. Easy!

new TestUser {
    SubjectId = "1",
    Username = "alice",
    Password = "password",

    Claims = new List<Claim> {
        new Claim("name", "Alice"),
        new Claim("website", "")
User logged in
  "sid": "94ffdf2501942878493f60cc14291a83",
  "sub": "1",
  "auth_time": 1534264648,
  "idp": "local",
  "name": "Alice",
  "website": "",
  "amr": [

And yet when I add a claim of my own, like “role” it’s nowhere to be seen.

    Claims = new List<Claim> {
        new Claim("name", "Alice"),
        new Claim("website", ""),
        new Claim("role", "admin")

What’s going on???

Well, it turns out that “website” is already in the list of standard profile claims. Role is not. So what do we need to do to add it?

First of all, if we want the claim to show up in the JavaScript client and not in the API then we want to create a Identity Resource not an Api Resource.

public static IEnumerable<IdentityResource> GetIdentityResources() => new List<IdentityResource> {
    new IdentityResources.OpenId(),
    new IdentityResources.Profile(),
    new IdentityResource( "roles", new [] { "role" } )

And then have the client request it:

var config = {
    authority: "http://localhost:5000",
    client_id: "js",
    redirect_uri: "http://localhost:5003/callback.html",
    response_type: "id_token token",
    scope:"openid profile api1 roles",
    post_logout_redirect_uri : "http://localhost:5003/index.html",

Then it shows up in the client:

User logged in
  "sid": "94ffdf2501942878493f60cc14291a83",
  "sub": "1",
  "auth_time": 1534264648,
  "idp": "local",
  "name": "Alice",
  "website": "",
  "role": "Admin",
  "amr": [

React and .NET Core WebAPI with F# Part 1: React


I’m going to go through a step-by-step guide to getting React and .NET Core WebAPI working together. In this guide I’m going to try to document everything so there are no hidden steps and very little assumed knowledge.

In this first part, I’m just going to get a vanilla solution working with TypeScript and React.

Create the solution and project directories

We’re going to have the layout of a standard Visual Studio solution here, so create a folder for the solution, e.g. ReactWebApiDemo and then under that a folder for our web project, e.g. ReactWebApiDemo again.

Install npm

Most modern web projects use the Node.js package manager, npm, so the first step is to install it from either of the provided links. I’ll note that yarn is a possible alternative to npm and you’re welcome to try it instead, though the usage will be slightly different. At the time of writing, the npm version was 5.6.0.

First we need to initialize our project with

npm init

This gives the following:

PS C:\Projects\ReactWebApiDemo\ReactWebApiDemo> npm init
This utility will walk you through creating a package.json file.
It only covers the most common items, and tries to guess sensible defaults.

See `npm help json` for definitive documentation on these fields
and exactly what they do.

Use `npm install ` afterwards to install a package and
save it as a dependency in the package.json file.

Press ^C at any time to quit.
package name: (reactwebapidemo)
version: (1.0.0)
description: React WebAPI Demo
entry point: (index.js)
test command:
git repository:
license: (ISC)
About to write to C:\Projects\ReactWebApiDemo\ReactWebApiDemo\package.json:

  "name": "reactwebapidemo",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "React WebAPI Demo",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  "author": "",
  "license": "ISC"

Is this ok? (yes) yes

After that, the syntax for installing packages that will end up in production code (like React) is:

npm install {module name}

or, for libraries that are used in development but will not end up in production:

npm install --save-dev {module name}

"–save-dev" can be replaced by "-D", e.g.

npm install -D {module name}

Install and Configure Webpack

The first thing we're going to set up is webpack. Webpack is a modular utility for minimizing and transforming our other files to make them production ready. We'll use it to:
* Convert TypeScript (.ts) files to JavaScript (.js) files
* Convert React TypeScript (.tsx) files to JavaScript (.js) files
* Less CSS (.less) files to CSS (.css) files.
* Pack our JavaScript and CSS files together with those of the third-party libraries we're using.
* Minimize and compress our JavaScript and CSS files.

The first step is to install webpack and its command-line interface, webpack-cli, which we can do with npm:

PS C:\Projects\ReactWebApiDemo\ReactWebApiDemo> npm install --save-dev webpack webpack-cli
[..................] - fetchMetadata: sill resolveWithNewModule webpack@4.10.2 checking installable status
  • webpack – The package and minimization utility.
  • webpack-cli – The webpack command line interface.

Webpack runs off a configuration file, webpack.config.js. This is the barest of configuration files to start with:

// Let us use the core webpack module as a library
const webpack = require( 'webpack' );
// Let us use the built-in webpack path module as a library
const path = require( 'path' );

module.exports = {
    // Entry: a.k.a. "Entry Point", the JS file that will used to build the JavaScript dependency graph
    // If not specified, src/index.js is the default.
    entry: "./src/index.js",
    // Output: Where we'll output the build files.
    output: {
        // Path: The directory to which we'll write transformed files
        path: path.resolve( __dirname, 'dist' ),
        // Filename: The name to which we'll write our bundled JavaScript.
        // If not specified, dist/main.js is the default.
        filename: 'main.js'
    // The processing mode.  Accepted alues are "development", "production", or "none".
    mode: 'production'

You'll note that it needs an input file at "src/input.js" and an output directory at "dist", so create those in the web project.
After that we can run it with:

node .\node_modules\webpack\bin\webpack.js


PS C:\Projects\ReactWebApiDemo\ReactWebApiDemo> node .\node_modules\webpack\bin\webpack.js
Hash: c4097b5edb272ec4b73c
Version: webpack 4.10.2
Time: 125ms
Built at: 2018-06-03 20:48:45
    Asset       Size  Chunks             Chunk Names
bundle.js  930 bytes       0  [emitted]  main
[0] ./src/index.js 0 bytes {0} [built]

We can make this easier on ourselves by setting this command up in the "scripts" section of package.json. E.g.

  "scripts": {
    "debug": "node ./node_modules/webpack/bin/webpack.js"


npm run-script debug


npm run debug

We can make this even easier by putting the mode in the scripts and simplifying the scripts to just call "webpack" as in:

  "scripts": {
    "debug": "webpack --mode none",
    "dev": "webpack --mode development",
    "release": "webpack --mode production"

We're going to make sure we have this working, so for now, change input.js to:

function test() {

Run npm run-script debug. It should create “dist\bundle.js”. Open it up. You should see some webpack overhead stuff and our test() method at the bottom.

One last change we can make is to let webpack know about common extensions so we can import files as just “import ‘./blah'” and not “import ‘./blah.js'”.
Add the following after the “module” section:

    resolve: {
        extensions: ['.js', '.ts', '.jsx', '.tsx', '.json']

Setting up Less CSS


npm install --save-dev less less-loader css-loader style-loader
  • less – The Less CSS library.
  • less-loader – The webpack module for Less-to-CSS conversion.
  • css-loader – The webpack module that allows us to import CSS into JavaScript.
  • style-loader – The webpack module that, with css-loader, lets us import styles into JavaScript.

Following the instructions on the less-loader site, we add this to webpack.config.js:

    // Define our modules here
    module : {
        rules: [
                test: /\.less$/, // Match all *.less files
                use: [{
                    loader: 'style-loader' // creates style nodes from JS strings
                  }, {
                    loader: 'css-loader' // translates CSS into CommonJS
                  }, {
                    loader: 'less-loader' // compiles Less to CSS

Add a less file to src, e.g. “site.less”.

body {
    font-family: 'Times New Roman', Times, serif;

Have index.js import the style from the file, e.g.

import style from './site.less'

If you run webpack again, you’ll see bundle.js get updated.
You can test that the style is applied by creating a small HTML file, e.g.

        <meta charset="utf-8">
        <a href="http://../dist/bundle.js">http://../dist/bundle.js</a>

If you load the file in a browser, you’ll see the CSS is used.

Setting up TypeScript

I’m basically following the instructions here except we’re going to use awesome-typescript-loader instead. Once again, we start by installing the prerequisites. Run

npm install --save-dev typescript awesome-typescript-loader

TypeScript needs its own config file, tsconfig.json:

    "compilerOptions": {
        "outDir": "./dist/",
        "noImplicitAny": true,
        "module": "es6",
        "moduleResolution": "node",
        "target": "es5",
        "jsx": "react",
        "allowJs": true

Note “moduleResolution”:”node”. This will allow us to use “import from ‘blah'” to import node modules.

In webpack.config.js we need the module definition:

            // Typescript
                test: /\.tsx?$/, // Match *.ts and *.tsx
                use: 'awesome-typescript-loader', // Converts TypeScript to JavaScript
                exclude: /node_modules/ // Don't look in NPM's node_modules

We can test it by putting a TypeScript file in the src folder. This is the TypeScript straight from the “TypeScript in 5 minutes” tutorial:

interface Person {
    firstName: string;
    lastName: string;

export function greeter(person: Person) {
    return "Hello, " + person.firstName + " " + person.lastName;

Then reference it in index.js:

import greeter from './test.ts';

If you run webpack again, you’ll see the greeter code added to bundle.js.

Setting up React

Again, install react and react-dom with npm. No “–save-dev” this time – these are going in production!

npm install react react-dom

We’re also going to want to use babel to let us use EC6+ features in EC5 browsers. Start by installing babel (Dev only):

npm install --save-dev babel-core babel-loader 

We then install babel presets to tell it the plugins to set up.

npm install --save-dev babel-preset-env babel-preset-react

We need to set the babel loader up in our webpack.config.js:

            // Babel
                test: /\.jsx?$/, // Match *.js and *.jsx
                use: 'babel-loader', // Converts ES2015+ JavaScript to browser-compatible JS
                exclude: /node_modules/ // Don't look in NPM's node_modules

And babel needs its own configuration file, .babelrc, to tell it about the plugins:

    "presets": ["env", "react"]

Let’s test this out. We’ll change our index.js to include the React code given in the React tutorial:

import style from './site.less';
import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

class ShoppingList extends React.Component {
    render() {
        return (
                <h1>Shopping List for {}</h1>

function renderShoppingList() {
        <ShoppingList />,

window.onload = renderShoppingList;

If we load index.html we’ll see the React component render.

Let’s try loading files from a JSX. We’ll save this as ShoppingList.jsx:

import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

class ShoppingList extends React.Component {
    render() {
      return (
          <h1>Shopping List for {}</h1>

  module.exports = {
    renderShoppingList : function() {
      console.log( "renderShoppingList" );
          <ShoppingList />,

Then modify our index.js like so:

import style from './site.less';
import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

var shoppingList = require( "./ShoppingList" );

function test() {
    console.log( "test" );
window.onload = test;

And put the ID it requires in index.html:

        <div id="shopping-list"></div>

Now if we load our index.html in the browser we’ll see our React component.

Finally, let’s see if we can get this working with a TSX file.

For TypeScript to be able to import node modules properly we need to import the TypeScript type packages.

npm install --save-dev @types/react @types/react-dom

If we fail to do this we’ll get errors like “TS7016: Could not find a declaration file for module ‘react-dom'”.

Let’s make another component called AnotherComponent.tsx with the following code:

import * as React from 'react';
import * as ReactDOM from 'react-dom';

class AnotherComponent extends React.Component {
    public render() {
        return (

export function renderAnotherComponent() {
        <AnotherComponent />,

Now change index.js to call it:

<br />var shoppingList = require( "./ShoppingList" );
var anotherComponent = require( "./AnotherComponent" );

function test() {
    console.log( "test" );
window.onload = test;

And put the ID it requires in index.html:

        <div id="shopping-list"></div>
        <div id="another-component"></div>

Now if we load index.html in a browser we’ll see our JSX component and our TSX component.

On to Part 2.

Mocking delegates with Moq


Using Delegates

In C#, a delegate is a function signature that can be passed around as a parameter. This is a delegate that takes a couple of parameters and returns a value:

public delegate int DoSomething( double x, string y );

This is a method that puts it to work with Invoke:

    public int CallDelegate( DoSomething doSomething, double x, string y ) {
        return doSomething?.Invoke( x, y ) ?? 0;

You don’t need to use Invoke, you can use it directly via:

        return doSomething( x, y );

but Invoke is nice because you can guard against nullables.

Mocking Delegates

When unit testing with Moq, you may find yourself wanting to mock a delegate or to verify that it was called. It’s straightforward, just make sure you mock the method itself and not Invoke:

        public void TestMethod() {

            var mockDoSomething = new Mock<MyClass.DoSomething>();
            mockDoSomething.Setup( _ => _( It.IsAny<double>(), It.IsAny<string>() ) ).Returns( 5 );
            // NOT
            // mockDoSomething.Setup( _ => _.Invoke( It.IsAny<double>(), It.IsAny<string>() ) ).Returns( 5 );
            var subject = new MyClass();
            var result = subject.CallDelegate( mockDoSomething.Object, 1.1, "x" );
            Assert.AreEqual( 5, result );
            mockDoSomething.Verify( _ => _( 1.1, "x" ), Times.Once );
            mockDoSomething.Verify( _ => _.Invoke( 1.1, "x" ), Times.Once );            

If you try to mock Invoke itself, you’ll get an error like:

System.InvalidCastException: Unable to cast object of type ‘System.Linq.Expressions.InstanceMethodCallExpressionN’ to type ‘System.Linq.Expressions.InvocationExpression’.

Wrapping the Legend in SciChart


I’ve been using SciChart as a real-time graphing control. There’s documentation on the website about how to make the legend wrap when it’s too long but it’s not clear. It seems you can’t do it with LegendModifier alone and while you can do it with SciChartLegend they don’t make it clear where the control is supposed to go.

Anyway, this is what works:

        <ControlTemplate TargetType="s:LegendPlaceholder">
            LegendData="{Binding LegendData, ElementName=LegendModifier}" 
                <WrapPanel Orientation="{Binding Orientation, RelativeSource={RelativeSource AncestorType=s:SciChartLegend}}" />